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Career as an Energy Professional

Updated: Jun 7, 2020

Careers in renewable energy

Energy is fundamental to the subsistence on which society, industry and commerce depends. Discussion is rife that it is no longer an option but a necessity, and an incredible opportunity, to mobilize our masses and direct them towards resources of the future: biomass, wind, solar, water and geothermal, which is soon to overwhelm all aspects of our existence.

Once put into action fittingly, India’s renewable energy rush could be much more constructive than just lowering global warming levels in the country. It could help millions get career opportunities in the area of Renewable Energy. The coming five years will see a sudden upsurge in green jobs across the country.

Energy is fundamental to the subsistence on which society, industry and commerce depends. Discussion is rife that it is no longer an option but a necessity, and an incredible opportunity, to mobilize our masses and direct them towards resources of the future: biomass, wind, solar, water and geothermal, which is soon to overwhelm all aspects of our existence.

Water scarcity, pollution, global warming are some of the hazards of technology and excesses of mankind that are staring at us and can no longer be ignored. These are causing some serious health problems and the remedies are sought with immediate effect. Boardroom discussions can no longer produce results and now is the time every individual should join the crusade against these demons. Science was never distant from nature as every invention has its roots and inspiration in nature. It’s a pity that some of our innovative technology did not go down well with nature and wreaked havoc in the form of natural disasters. It is a clarion call for us to wake up and do the damage control. Fortunately for us, India is nature’s favoured region with abundance of energy produced by sun, wind, water and biomass. New and renewable energy is the only solution to fight with the hazardous effects of technology.


Government of India is taking various measures to utilize the natural sources of energy and has plans to add 500 gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy to its electricity grid by 2030 in a bid to clean up air in its cities and lessen the rapidly growing economy’s dependence on coal. India has an ambitious target of installing 175GW by 2022 out of which 100GW is through solar power. India is the world’s third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases. To cut emissions and clean air, it now pledges to increase 40 percent of its installed capacity by 2030 which is a sharp increase from 21.4 percent at present. It will be a small step to satiate the energy appetite of its ever-growing population.


The introduction of renewable energy will lead to job creation in India. To meet the target set by Government of India for RE, there is a huge demand for equipment manufacturing in renewable energy sector which leads to a requirement of large number of skilled manpower. Manpower requirement is not limited to only manufacturing sector but it is needed in every area including Installation, System Designing, Operations & Maintenance, Financing and Marketing.

National Institute of Solar Energy was founded by Government of India for Research & Development and to produce skilled manpower in RE to help achieve the target set by Government. NISE, along with Green Jobs sector skills council is taking some wonderful initiatives to create awareness and enter into the arena of research and development in Renewable Energy.


Financial evaluation of renewable energy projects is required to understand the economic feasibility of RE projects. Topics like payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return, depreciation and depreciation accounting to evaluate a project’s viability need in-depth knowledge of the subject. Educational institutes can introduce programmes in these areas and help create professionals and Energy Managers. Managing risks and planning its mitigation is also an important area that needs emphasis to meet the project objectives. Students from Engineering and Management can get huge benefits from these courses.

Energy Management & Auditing forms an integral part of curriculum for renewable energy programs. These courses are designed with an objective to teach students the principles of energy management, requirement of energy management, techniques of its implementation and net gain from energy management & auditing. Energy Auditing can provide a very lucrative career to students who have an interest in this disruptive technology.

Government and Private Educational Institutes should take the lead in incorporating Renewable energy programmes in their curriculum. Amity University Haryana has taken the initiative to offer two Post Graduate program in Solar and Alternate energy for the engineering and sciences students with an objective to produce energy professionals, who are sensitive to, and well aware of, the energy issues and concerns, and who can apply their specialized knowledge for the sustainable energy management. The objective of the program is to produce graduates strong in energy resources, technologies and management fundamentals, and capable in addressing the present and potential future energy problems. A minor degree in Renewable Energy is offered to students of UG from different fields of Engineering, Sciences, management, commerce, communication etc to make students aware of the technology and its need. The students are exposed to the concept of energy efficient technology and to access conventionally used technology based on its energy efficiency.


The induction and acceptance of Renewable energy requires social and economic transformation in the country. To begin with, generating awareness regarding the new technology, its utility and the financial implications require complete understanding of technology by the masses. Although an inexpensive energy source, such as this, is a boon for everyone, people are still sceptical about its convenience and uses.

Educational institutions can play a vital role in educating the masses directly by introducing courses in the area of renewable energy within the curriculum and also by conducting skill-based training, road shows, workshops, conference, exhibitions etc.

Educational institutes can introduce courses in Solar PV, Solar Thermal, Biomass, Wind Energy, Applications of RE for Domestic and Industrial usage, Power generation through RE, RE Project Management, Marketing and Finance to name a few. Students can also be given training in designing systems on software like PVSyst, PVSOL which will make them skilled in power generation/ industrial applications/ domestic applications etc. During curriculum designing, Smart Grids, Micro grids, Solar PV/T hybrid systems, Biofuels, advanced energy systems and Storage are some of the topics that need to be addressed for all practical purposes. Some advanced topics like Smart Grids, Micro grids, Solar PV/T hybrid systems, Biofuels, advanced energy systems, Large Scale Grid Integration and Storage can also be introduced in the curriculum for the students of PG. Thus, New and Renewable education will break out of monopoly of Science domain and will spread to other branches like management and humanities. It will also open a vista for research and innovation in the area of Renewable energy.

what do they do?

Renewable energy field has great potential for jobs of the future. Besides, renewable energy is also critical for the safety of our planet. The existence of Cyborgs, Time Machine and Extinction of Humans by Machines are debatable. But Climate Change is Real. So, we do need personnel with the expertise in energy and climate change. So, what exactly is renewable energy? Why is renewable energy a good field to get into? Types of job opportunities and scopes of data science and big data analytics in renewable energy vertical. How to have a career in the renewable energy sector? This post will answer all those queries.

Careers in Renewable Energy – Best Careers to Counter the Climate Change

When it comes to the hottest and most buzzing careers in the 21st century, the majority of people think of hardcore technical domains such as data science, machine learning & artificial intelligence. Few people might also come up with biotechnology (or biosciences). But, quite often people forget about one of the dark horses – the Renewable Energy sector. Even Bill Gates lobbied for the Energy sector as one of the top three career choices for making an impactful career (other two were Artificial Intelligence and Biosciences).

Energy plays a key role in the economy and environment. According to the experts including Bill Gates, there is a huge and growing demand for energy that’s “reliable, cheap, and clean.” Renewable energy is clean, affordable, and reliable, and has got the potential to counter poverty and climate change. The energy industry is considered as highly capital intensive along with the huge impact on employment. More importantly, hundred years from now, there might not be any fossil fuels left. Hence, the renewable energy field promises a lot in terms of sustainability and jobs prospects. The energy sector provides excellent career opportunities for smart and innovative minds. The field does not only present scientific and technological opportunities but also in the field of design, creativity, commercialization and business development

Renewable Energy vs Non-Renewable Energy (Fossil Fuels)

Traditionally, we have mostly depended on the fossil fuels for our energy needs, from home heating and electricity to fuel for our automobiles and mass transportation.

Now, the primary problem is that fossil fuels are non-renewable, and will get depleted at a certain point in time. Secondly, the use of fossil fuels presents several environmental, social and health hazards. There are two main methods for removing fossil fuels from the ground: mining and drilling. Both processes carry serious health and environmental impacts. The chemicals (that get released while extracting fossil fuels) could cause cancer and/or severely damage neurological, cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems. Read more about Fossil Fuels and their hidden costs.

The extraction process also releases potent greenhouse gases including methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Methane is the most significant and the most harmful one. It is a very potent greenhouse gas that causes tremendous global warming; 34 times more effective at trapping heat over a 100-year timescale and 86 times more effective over a 20-year timescale. Fossil fuels also lead to other environmental hazards like acid rain, air pollution, and land & water pollution.

Apart from the extraction process, the transporting process can generate its own pollution, and increase the potential for catastrophic accidents. For instance, natural gas is highly flammable. Natural gas is transported over long distances by transmission pipelines, while distribution pipelines deliver gas locally to homes and businesses. Hence, the transportation and distribution process to homes and businesses carries great risks. Between 2008 and 2015, there were 5, 065 significant safety incidents related to natural gas pipeline transmission and distribution, leading to 108 fatalities and 531 injuries.

Of the many environmental and public health risks associated with fossil fuels, the most serious one is the global warming case, which is quite irreversible in nature. Combustion of the fossil fuels led to the rise in the average temperature of Earth by 1-degree Fahrenheit (1°F) in the 20th century.

Now you might be thinking of nuclear energy as a renewable source of energy. But nuclear energy could be extremely dangerous (in fact, catastrophic or even apocalyptic) due to the unleashing the power of the atom.

Renewable energy, also termed as alternative energy, simply means the energy that is produced from sources other than the primary energy supply, the fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil). They are clean and sustainable. Use of renewable energy helps to reduce the carbon footprint (level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere). Hence, it is beneficial for the global climate and helps the society to deal with issues like global warming. Uses of renewable energy also help to reduce our dependency on gas and oil reserves, which are getting more and more expensive.

The renewable energy (or Non-fossil fuel energy) generation technologies, such as wind, solar, and geothermal, contributed less than 1% of the total energy-related global warming emissions. Besides, they do not present any potential environmental, social or health hazards. At present, the global spending on fossil fuels is around USD $500 billion per year and almost $6 trillion per year on dirty energy infrastructure (International Energy Agency). So, there is a serious need for cost-cutting on energy, in fact, clean energy.

Job Prospects in the Renewable Energy Sector

According to the latest report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the number of people employed in the renewable energy sector across the globe could rise to 24 million by 2030. According to forecasts, the global investment will reach USD $1.3 trillion per year in 2030. The report also stated that the renewables will add about $19 trillion to the global economy, and will create about 6 million jobs by 2050. According to World Economic Forum, the Advanced Energy vertical is a $1.4 trillion global industry, almost twice the size of the global airline industry, and nearly equal to worldwide apparel revenue.

The majority of the renewable energy jobs are available in China, India, Japan, Brazil, the U.S., and Germany. In fact, 62% of all renewable energy jobs are based in Asia, as installation and manufacturing continue to shift to the region. Among the clean energy sectors, solar photovoltaic (PV) was the largest employer in 2016, employing 3.1 million people – a 12% increase compared to 2015. Liquid biofuels (1.7 million jobs), solid biomass (0.7 million) and biogas (0.3 million) were also major employers, as reported by IRENA.

In the USA, solar industry jobs are growing at a rate 12 times faster than the rest of the economy (Business Insider). In fact, solar and wind jobs have grown at rates of about 20% annually in recent years. According to the report, published by the Environmental Defense Fund’s Climate Corps program, the industry now has at least 4 million jobs, up from 3.4 million in 2011. Although the US President is lobbying for fossil fuel energy in order to create more local jobs, the importance of renewable energy is indispensable. In fact, the Trump Administration Seeks to Avoid Withdrawal From Paris Climate Accord.

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In the UK, and marine energy currently support around 30, 000 direct and indirect jobs and there is the potential to generate a further 70, 000 over the next decade. As per Sophie Bennett, policy manager for employment, skills, and training at RenewableUK, the trade association for wind and marine energy, the renewable energy sector is likely to see huge growth in the coming years as international bodies are trying to tackle climate change and CO2 emissions desperately. According to David Hunt (managing partner at specialist recruitment firm Hyperion Executive Search), the career opportunities for students and graduates are excellent in the clean energy and renewables industry, and the trend will continue for a long time. As of now, the global industry needs £200billion of investment to renew generating capacity from a range of sources including wind, solar, biomass, gas and nuclear. Additionally, storing that energy is also a critical job.

The career prospects are very bright in for India too. India has been facing rising fuel prices, energy insecurity, and other environmental & climate-related problems. The renewable energy offers a critical solution to India’s burgeoning energy demand challenges. Moreover, renewable energy technologies are more labour-intensive than more mechanized fossil fuel technologies, as demonstrated in more mature markets, and can provide a tremendous opportunity to create local jobs. In 2015, more than 8.1 million people got employed in renewable energy worldwide. As per Business Standard, India ranks 5th in the world for job creation in the field of renewable energy in 2016. India’s clean energy goals have the potential to create 300, 000 new jobs by 2020.

Career Paths in the Renewable Energy Sector

Renewable energy projects require a workforce with diverse background and skillset. There are job opportunities for ecologists, biologists, physicists, geologists, architectural and structural engineers, planners and project managers to computer science or electrical engineers, communications professionals, business developers and even helicopter pilots. Initially, the energy companies were overwhelmingly full of engineers and scientists. But over the last decade, the balance has become tilted towards graduates with commercial skills as well.

For example, for a wind energy project, apart from wind energy professionals (and those from the core renewable energy science and engineering), you need meteorologists in order to find good, windy locations. The team also needs to have biologists and ecologists for considering the effects of the wind farm on birds and other animals in the environment. Sometimes, you might also need an archaeologist. Then there will be architects to design buildings that can generate their own wind power.

Role of Data Science & Big Data Analytics in the Renewable Energy Sector

As with many industries, data science, machine learning and big data analytics are also transforming the energy sector by providing insights to reduce costs and allowing oil producers to adjust to market demands in boom times. The solar industry is rapidly embracing ways to analyze and crunch data in order to lower the cost of solar energy and to open up new markets for their technology. In the coming days, Big Data & Analytics will be very crucial for the renewable energy market. Finally, there are matters of cost and the policies and opinions of the people who live in or govern the area.

Infographic Source: IBM

Students from the Earth Sciences background and related fields like Oil & Petroleum Engineering, Mining, Geology, and Geo-informatics are also in good demand because of the same reasons. In fact, the US is currently trying to spend more on fossil fuels (as per the Trump policies) In the US, the job growth for Petroleum Engineers, Mining and Geological Engineers has been 30% and 12% respectively between 2010 and 2014 (Forbes). Owing to the demand for energy sources, graduates in Oil, Gas & Petroleum Engineering are also in huge demand; and definitely one of the hottest career paths. It is also possible to switch to the renewable energy field from Earth Sciences field.

As you can see, there are plenty of opportunities for everyone in the renewable energy sector. It’s very exciting, with lots of variety and room for new ideas and innovation. You could be working outdoors on land or at sea, in an office or in a laboratory. There are opportunities to travel and work in unusual places. Working in the renewable (green) energy sector offers the chance to be part of an exciting, diverse, growing industry as well as playing a role in the fight against the climate change and protect our planet earth.

Education and Higher Studies in Renewable Energy

What can you study for Bachelors and/or Masters for a Career in Renewable Energy?

Earth Sciences

• Renewable Energy

• Sustainable Energy & Green Technologies

• Carbon Accounting

• Renewable Energy & Carbon Management

• Carbon and Energy Management

• Renewable Energy & Clean Technology

• Environmental Engineering

• Oil & Gas Technology

• Petroleum Engineering

• Geology

• Engineering Geology

• Geoscience

• Energy Geoscience

• Petroleum Geology

• Geo-informatics

• Environmental Geology

• Atmospheric Physics

• IT, Electrical, Electronics or Computer Science Engineering

• Ecology

Best Undergraduate Programs in Core (Technical) Renewable Energy Science & Engineering

UPES (India)

University of Adelaide – Mechanical & Sustainable and Chemical & Sustainable (Australia)

Best Business & Management Programs in the Field of Renewable Energy

Top Universities for Graduate Programs and Research

ETH Zurich

• Harvard University

• University of Oxford

• UC Berkeley


• University of Cambridge

• Caltech

• Stanford University

• Columbia University

• University of Washington


• UC San Diego

• Australian National University

• University of Tokyo

• University of Toronto

• Princeton University

• Utrecht University

• University of British Columbia

• University of Edinburgh

• UT Austin

• Yale University

• University of Leeds

• Durham University

• Imperial College London

• University of Colorado Boulder

Frequently asked questions

1. What is Renewable Energy?

For starters, let’s define the term ‘renewable energy’ to make things clear: renewable energy is any source of energy that exists naturally, is theoretically inexhaustible and doesn’t not originate from fossil or nuclear fuel. This was quite an academic definition, especially if you are a newbie in this field - below we will introduce renewable energy more thoroughly.

So, in a nutshell, any type of potential energy that can be replenished after use is itself renewable energy. When we say that renewable energy is an infinite source of energy and can be replenished, we obviously, mean it on a human timescale (e.g., sun might not be there forever but at least for the coming few billion years it will warm the humanity up).

Some renewable energy sources have been in use for quite a while now, such as wind, tidal and hydro power (for sail ships, water mills, etc.). However, in order to bring renewable energy sources into wider scopes and aspects of our lives (one of which is small businesses and different companies), there was a requirement for more technological development and intellectual investment. This is how modern renewable energy types have been created that will enable you to have them set up at your business site and enjoy the results.

2. How Does Renewable Energy Work?

There are many types of renewable energy that have come to successfully replace the traditional sources of energy. Each of these renewable energy types uses different natural sources for generating power and covering all your energy and water usage needs. Find the more detailed descriptions of the way they function below:

• Solar Energy: Solar power is pretty much one of the most common types of renewable energy. Having a solar panel installed at your company, you will be able to cover your air and water heating needs. Another solar technology are the solar photovoltaic systems that use solar cells for turning sunlight into electricity. Solar panels are installed on unshaded, pitched roofs and don’t require much maintenance.

• Geothermal Energy: Geothermal energy is taken from the heat that’s stored under the earth’s surface. It can also be captured from the absorbed heat present in the atmosphere and oceans. In short, the earth’s heat is turned into electricity by means of geothermal energy.

• Wind Energy: The kinetic energy of the wind is processed into mechanical energy and electricity. The technologies used for getting in energy are wind turbines which are small single building applications to large onshore or offshore wind farms. Wind energy could be a good idea for those businesses that possess a large unused space for installing the wind turbines.

• Hydropower: Water also comes with kinetic energy that can be turned into electricity. In this case, the water flow is sent to turbine blades that spin making the electrical generator attached to the turbine spin as well thus generating electricity.

• Biomass Energy: This type of renewable energy is generated from organic materials such as wood, straw and other crops. The energy is generated by burning these materials. Biomass is considered renewable because its inherent energy is extracted from the sun, besides it can be replenished within short time periods. When trees are burned, they emit the same amount of carbon dioxide as when they die naturally. Thus, using biomass energy, you will not harm the environment in any unnatural or additional way.

3.Why is Renewable Energy Important?

Now that you know how different renewable energy sources work and what natural riches, they make use of, it’s high time to look at their benefits and advantages. The latter are obviously the main factors that make renewable energy important:

• Cleaner and Greener Environment: Renewable energy usage will greatly reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions that come with the traditional energy sources. The environmental impact of renewable energy sources is close to none. Why not invest in living on a better planet?

• Infinite Energy Source: With renewable energy you can be sure that you are providing the coming generations not only with a better environment but also with an energy that will hardly ever run out. Besides, as noted above, it keeps getting cheaper which means that your grandchildren will have a chance of paying close to nothing for the electricity they use.

• Economy: Renewable energy sources function on certain facilities (solar panels, wind turbines, etc.) that require well-thought workmanship. This means that the higher the demand for renewable energy sources, the newer jobs will be created for people who create these facilities and install them. Besides, the economy also grows as the US sells renewable energy systems overseas as well.

• Fight against Global Warming: As more and more people start using renewable energy, the biggest threat of our era - global warming might start its retreat. With the help of clean energy, you will be able to contribute to climate change in a positive way.

4. What are the Benefits of Using Renewable Energy for Small Businesses? The next important question that arises in your mind is how your small business will benefit from investing in a renewable energy source and going green. We already mentioned that your business will become much more energy efficient and you’ll save lots of money. Let’s have a close-up look at this and other benefits of renewable energy for your small business:

• Lower Energy Bills: This is probably the main reason why your business should go green. Instead of paying thousands of dollars for your monthly electricity bills, you can pay much less if you convert to a renewable energy source.

• Tax Credits: Your company can get tax incentives from the local government as a reward for your green initiative. Besides, you might also be able to cover at least 30% of your renewable energy system installation with the help of these incentives.

• Improved Reputation and More Customers: People will highly appreciate your step toward reducing your carbon footprint and going green. It will make them feel that you care about them and the environment which will highly increase the possibility of many customers choosing your services over others. This will earn you a good reputation and possibly increase your sales. Besides, conversion to a renewable energy source will have your employees stay with you longer and be loyal to the goals of your company.

• Healthier Environment for You and Your Employees: And last but not least, having a renewable energy source at your company will make it a cleaner place for long and loaded working days. Reducing your carbon footprint, you will have a positive effect not only over the whole environment but also on a smaller scale, on the office you are working at. Don’t harm the health of your employees by sticking to the traditional energy sources which are going to run out sooner or later.

5. What is REC?

A REC or a renewable energy credit is a certificate aimed at tracking the progress and compliance with the Renewable Portfolio Standards of different states. RECs should correspond with the environmental attributes of energy generated from renewable energy sources.

To put it simply, a REC is proof that your energy is being produced from renewable energy sources. You will be issued a REC in the following case: when one megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity is produced and sent to the electricity grid from a renewable energy source.

Using a REC, you will be able to substantiate your renewable electricity use claims. Different levels of government, regional electricity transmission authorities, NGOs and trade associations support renewable energy credits.

RECs will help you get funding for renewable energy technologies for the energy companies. The prices of RECs are also inclined toward decrease as the demand for renewable energy grows.

6. Do I Have to Purchase Solar Panels or Wind Turbines?

The main dilemma that many small business owners stumble upon is the choice between solar panels and wind turbines. Deciding which one to choose can depend on a number of different factors such as the location of your company, your budget, energy needs, number of employees, etc.

To help you make the right choice here is a quick comparison of solar panels and wind turbines”

• Solar Panels: To start with, solar panels require very little maintenance. All that is required from you is checking the connections, tightening the bolts, cleaning the panels on an annual basis. There are no moving parts which makes things much easier for you. Besides, if you are late with your annual maintenance, it’s highly unlikely that you will have many problems. What refers to the installation of solar panels, they can be placed pretty much anywhere as long as the sunlight falls over them. You can install them on the roof, on the ground, on the side or any other comfortable place of your building. Solar panels usually come with a 25-year warranty, as for the design life of your panel, it can serve you for 30-40 years. Solar panels don’t make any noise during operation. Sun power is environmentally safe and doesn’t have any damaging effects on wildlife. A drawback for solar power is that the size of the panels you’ll need to generate the same amount of energy in different geographical places can be different.

• Wind Turbines: Wind turbines are very space-efficient, so to say. A single wind turbine (the most powerful one) can generate electricity for 600 US-based households. Imagine how little you would need to have enough wind energy at your company. The maintenance of wind turbines can depend on the manufacturer. Direct drive turbines require little maintenance due to the small number of moving parts. Other turbines that come with a gearbox require annual maintenance. Wind turbines should be installed 30 feet above anything within 500 feet. This is not good for buildings located in big city centres and near many trees. The warranty period ranges from 5 to 10 years while the design will last from 20 to 40 years depending on the manufacturer. Wind turbines make a little noise at higher wind speeds. One of the main advantages of wind turbines is that they are said to use less energy as compared to solar panels. As for the drawbacks of wind turbines, the one worth mentioning is the threat they have against wildlife, e.g., birds. However, this problem is also solvable by making the turbines more innovative and choosing their locations more carefully.

Make your final decision based upon the needs of your company and locations because both solar power and wind energy can be a great alternative to the traditional energy sources. And above all, their costs are equally falling as the demand grows.

Note: You can always purchase your energy from an ESCO (energy service company). This will release you from having to do all the dull purchasing processes on your own. Trusting the professionals is always a good decision.

7. Which is the Best Energy Supplier Company or How Can My Business Go Green?

An energy supplier company will help you switch to renewable energy in the most efficient way for your small business. The thing is to choose the right company which provides a team of qualified professionals and has established a loyal customer base and gained solid experience in the field over the years. You can learn about all these points by doing your own research and surfing the net for a list of the most famous energy suppliers.

To make your search easier, we recommend you to apply for the services of Phoenix Energy Group. Our green energy groups will take the responsibility of having your business go green in the most professional way and at affordable prices. We have years of experience and numerous satisfied customers to back up the quality of our services.

Here is what Phoenix Energy Group offers to help you go green:

• Identification of the ways that will improve the sustainability of your business

• Creation of marketing material for your location

• Creation of partnerships for broadcasting your sustainability efforts

• Creation of Press Releases and strategies for your social media outlets

• A thorough investigation of your business needs and demands so as to provide the highest quality and most effective services

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