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Career in Ophthalmology


a branch of miin and surgry which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders.2 An ophthalmologist is a spilist in ophthalmology. The credentials include a degree in medicine, followed by additional four to five years of ophthalmology rsiny trining. Ophthalmology residency training programs may require a one-year pre-residency training in internal medicine, pediatrics, or general surgery. Additional specialty training (or fellowship) may be sought in a particular aspect of eye pathology.3 Ophthalmologists are allowed to use medications to treat eye diseases, implement laser therapy, and perform surgery when needed.4 Ophthalmologists may participate in academic research on the diagnosis and treatment for eye disorders.


A partial list of the most common diseases diagnosed and treated by Ophthalmologists include:6



Dry ys

Strismus (misalignment/deviation of eyes)

Proptosis (bulged eyes)

Exssiv tring (tear duct obstruction)


Eye examinationEit

Following are examples of methods of diagnosis performed in a y xmintion

Rtin examination

Specialized testsEit

Optil ohrn tomogrphy (OCT) is a medical technological platform used to assess ocular structures. The information is then utilized by physicians/doctors to assess staging of pathological processes and confirm clinical diagnoses. Subsequent OCT scans are used to assess the efficacy managing diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma.

Ophthalmic surgery

Ey surgry, also known as ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa by an ophthalmologist. The eye is a fragile organ, and requires extreme care before, during, and after a surgical procedure. An eye surgeon is responsible for selecting the appropriate surgical procedure for the patient, and for taking the necessary safety precautions.


Ophthalmology includes subspecialities which deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain parts of the eye. Some of them are:7

Antrior sgmnt surgery

Corn, ocular surface, and external disease


Mil rtin, deals with treatment of retinal problems through non-surgical means.

itro-rtinl surgry, deals with surgical management of retinal and posterior segment diseases. Medical retina and vitreo-retinal surgery sometimes together are called postrior sgmnt subspecialisation.

Ouloplstis and orbit surgery

Pitri ophthlmology/strismus (misalignment of the eyes)


trinry specialty training programs in veterinary ophthalmology exist in some countries.


The Grk roots of the word ophthalmology are ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos, "eye") and -λoγία (-logia, "study, discourse"),1011 i.e., "the study of eyes". The discipline applies to all animal eyes, whether human or not, since the practice and procedures are quite similar with respect to disease processes, while differences in anatomy or disease prevalence, whether subtle or substantial, may differentiate the two.


In Ini, after completing MBBS degree, postgraduate study in ophthalmology is required. The degrees are Doctor of Medicine, Master of Surgery, Diploma in Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery, and Diplomate of National Board. The concurrent training and work experience are in the form of a junior residency at a medical college, eye hospital, or institution under the supervision of experienced faculty. Further work experience in form of fellowship, registrar, or senior resident refines the skills of these eye surgeons. All India Ophthalmologist Society and various state-level ophthalmologist societies hold regular conferences and actively promote continuing medical education.

An ophthalmologist is a professional who deals with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways, including the eye and brain.

Here it must be kept in mind that an ophthalmologist is the correct and competent person to consult when there is some problem with the eyes. Only an ophthalmologist can prescribe any medicine for eye ailments or can perform corrective surgeries.


 Diplomate of National Board of Examination (DNB) Ophthalmology (3 Years)

 Diplomate of National Board - 2 years Postdoctoral Vitreoretinal Fellowship

 Fellowship in General Ophthalmology, Cornea, Uvea, Oculoplastis, Glaucoma and, Vitreoretinal - Session starts April & Oct every Year

 Ph D Programmes in Ophthalmology, Biochemistry & Microbiology affiliated to Tamil Nadu Dr M G R Medical University, Chennai

Eligibility criteria

To become a qualified ophthalmologist, one should complete his/her MBBS degree first, and then go for post-graduation in Ophthalmology. The degrees are Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), Master of Surgery (M.S.) and Diploma in Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery (DOMS). The concurrent training and work experience is in the form of a Junior Residency at a Medical College under the supervision of experienced faculty what is known as internship . Further work experience in the form of fellowship, registrar or senior resident refines the skills of these eye surgeons.

Career Prospects

Ophthalmology, a specialized branch of medicine, has ample career prospects. The job openings are in government and private hospitals, health centres, health departments and NGOs. As an ophthalmologist, one can apply for the Combined Medical Services entrance examination conducted by the U.P.S.C for the position of ophthalmologist or senior specialist of Ophthalmology. Also state health services entrance examinations are conducted by the respective state provincial services commissions. One can also join defence services - in army, air force or navy as an ophthalmologist.


In government and private hospitals, ophthalmologists can earn anywhere between Rs.20, 000 – Rs.30,000 per month excluding other perks and benefits.

Apart from salaried jobs, one can start his/her own private clinic where the earnings are likely to be more. From a private practice, an ophthalmologist can earn Rs.2,000 – Rs.5, 000 per day depending upon his/her skills and popularity.


Important institutes and colleges offering courses in Ophthalmology  All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Sankar Netralaya 18, College Road, Nungambakkam, Chennai - 600 006, Tamil Nadu, India Ph no. 91-044-28271616 (12 lines) Fax No. 91-044-28254180 E-mail: Website: http://www.snkrnthrly

 L V Prasad Eye Institute

Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, L V Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad 500 034 Andhra Pradesh, India Telephone: 91 40 3061 2345 (30 Channels) Fax: 91 40 2354 8271 Website:

Courses Offered: Long term and short-term programs in Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology Colleges in Various States














 Uttar Pradesh


Frequently Asked question

What does an ophthalmologist test for?

After performing a comprehensive eye exam, an ophthalmologist can diagnose a wide array of eye conditions and diseases, such as cataracts and glaucoma. They may identify these conditions based on your eye alignment, pain levels, or overall vision.

What diseases can be detected in an eye exam?

5 Common Health Problems Eye Exams Can Detect

 Diabetes. Diabetes affects the capillaries in your retina and may cause them to leak a yellowish fluid or bleed. ...

 High blood pressure. ...

 High cholesterol. ...

 Rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. ...

 Certain types of cancer.

When should I see an ophthalmologist?

You should see an ophthalmologist if you experience physical changes to your eyes, such as crossed eyes or eyes that turn inwards, outwards, upwards or downwards. Make an appointment with an ophthalmologist right away if you have eye pain, as this might be a symptom of a serious problem

What procedures do ophthalmologists perform?

Procedures that subspecialists commonly perform include:

 diagnosis and monitoring of moderate-to-severe eye conditions.

 cataract surgery.

 glaucoma surgery.

 refractive surgery to correct vision.

 cancer treatment.

 reconstructive surgery to repair trauma or birth abnormalities, such as crossed eyes.

What can an ophthalmologist do that an optometrist Cannot?

An optometrist is an eye doctor that can examine, diagnose, and treat your eyes. An ophthalmologist is a medical doctor who can perform medical and surgical interventions for eye conditions. An optician is a professional who can help fit eyeglasses, contact lenses, and other vision-correcting devices.

Which is better an optometrist or ophthalmologist?

Most optometrists offer medical treatment for common eye problems (such as dry eyes and eye infections) and certain chronic eye diseases (such as glaucoma). But certain eye disorders require treatment by an ophthalmologist, particularly if surgery or other specialty care is needed.

Is optometry a good profession?

Optometry is a great profession, arguably the best there is. As an optometrist you're able to have a direct impact on a very tangible part of people's lives every day: their vision. Patients will come to you with serious concerns for their ability to function in the world.

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