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Career in Agricultural services


About Agricultural services

India's agriculture is composed of many crops, with the foremost food staples being rice and wheat. Indian farmers also grow pulses, potatoes, sugarcane, oilseeds, and such non-food items as cotton, tea, coffee, rubber, and jute (a glossy fiber used to make burlap and twine). India is a fisheries giant as well. A total catch of about 3 million metric tons annually ranks India among the world's top 10 fishing nations. Despite the overwhelming size of the agricultural sector, however, yields per hectare of crops in India are generally low compared to international standards. Improper water management is another problem affecting India's agriculture. At a time of increasing water shortages and environmental crises, for example, the rice crop in India is allocated disproportionately high amounts of water. One result of the inefficient use of water is that water tables in regions of rice cultivation, such as Punjab, are on the rise, while soil fertility is on the decline. Aggravating the agricultural situation is an ongoing Asian drought and inclement weather. Although during 2000-01 a monsoon with average rainfall had been expected, prospects of agricultural production during that period were not considered bright. This has partially been due to relatively unfavorable distribution of rainfall, leading to floods in certain parts of the country and droughts in some others.

What do they do?

Career in Agriculture is one of the largest industries and a good source of employment across the country.

Agriculture also plays a vital role in Indian economy. At present, students from all over the country are selecting the agriculture field for their career prospective.

Courses & Eligibility

To start a professional career in agriculture, you will need to pursue courses in this field. Students have a variety of options to pursue courses in agriculture field. Some popular courses are listed here:

Certificate Courses:

  • Certificate in Agriculture Science

  • Certificate course in Food & Beverage Service

  • Certificate course in Bio-fertilizer Production

Diploma Courses:

  • Diploma in Agriculture

  • Diploma Courses in Agriculture and Allied Practices

  • Diploma in Food Processing

Bachelor Courses (S):

  • Bachelor of Science in Agriculture

  • Bachelor of Science (Honors) in Agriculture

  • Bachelor of Science in Crop Physiology

Master Courses (S):

  • Master of Science in Agriculture

  • Master of Science in Biological Sciences

  • Master of Science in Agriculture Botany

Doctoral Courses:

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture Biotechnology

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Agricultural Entomology


List of preferable institution:

Here is a list of top 10 agricultural colleges & universities in India:

National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal

Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Delhi

Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU), Hyderabad -

Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCSHAU), Hisar

University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bangalore

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore

G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology (GBPUA&T), Uttarakhand

Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut

Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Mumbai .


Skills:

1) Tech-skills

Technology and the Internet of Things (IoT) has made its way into the agriculture sector, Farmers are now using new innovations such as moisture sensors to measure the water content of soil, ,, terrain contour mapping,

self-driving and GPS enabled tractors – to produce food more sustainably.

However this doesn’t mean you have to buy every new gadget that hits the market, but knowledge of where technology is going, particularly in terms of agriculture practices is incredibly important.

All agriculture professionals need to embrace technological development more as those who embrace new technological advances often benefit the most.

2) Value Chain Knowledge

Once you are in in the Agriculture industry you need to be well versed with the value chain or value addition process. The value chain involves a full range of value adding activities required to bring a product or service through the different phases of production, including procurement of raw materials and other inputs. This can be easily achieved by a Value chain analysis software developed for Value Chain Analysis to analyze and compare the effects of different policy options for agriculture and sustainable rural development.

Knowing how to add value to your produce will be helpful to you on how to generate more profit.

3) Record Keeping

Gone the days when Agriculture was taken as an industry of casuals, currently it’s one of the industry that has turned out to be a green bed of business.

Every professional now needs to have a record keeping system in place as they engage in agribusiness. This will enable them to have a systematic flow of inputs and outputs on their farms.

It will also control financial issues that arise on the farm by showing the flow of money within the agribusiness enterprise i.e. (Income and Expenses).

Software’s that help you to manage your farm records and keep your finances in order include S which is very simple and secure for goat herd management, , , Financial Management Software, Profeeder, S and S.

4) Adaptability

Consumer demands have been changing over time and agriculture professionals can’t be left behind on this, as this is a skill that is transferable from industry to industry, but adaptability is particularly important for anyone considering a career in agriculture.

The industry itself is also quickly changing, with new challenges constantly presenting themselves. This means agriculture professionals must be able to adequately address these new obstacles by quickly adopting new methods advanced by technological innovation, in addition to predicting what new challenges lie ahead.

5) Interpersonal Skills

Agricultural professionals who work in the supply chain management, interpersonal skills are incredibly important. You are routinely required to interact with farmers who produce the farm products, and deliver these goods to other companies and institutions.

Having strong interpersonal skills is necessary for those involved in sales, marketing, advertising or an area of expertise that relies heavily on strategic communication.

6) Firm management skills

No matter what type of role you’re seeking in the Agriculture sector the hiring managers will be looking for a candidate who is organized, can stay on task and can work under pressure. You must ensure that you hit deadlines and let others know where there are on project timelines. Different firm Projects can be managed with various available soft wares such as Agrivi, Granular, Trimble, Agworld as well as Top firm management software.

7) Microsoft Excel skills

Having excellent knowledge on Microsoft Excel can play a role in monitoring your every firm performance as it is enabled with Spreadsheets that are ideal for recording yields from individual fields and herds throughout the year. Once you have collected the data, you can analyze the data to find any parts of your business that are underperforming.

Small quantities of data can be analyzed visually. However, when you have more data, it is often impossible to assess the statistical significance of any temporary drop in yield.

8) Analytical Skills

In the current times almost anyone can learn how to grow crops or manage livestock, but good analytical skills are the difference between simply going through the motions and thinking issues through and doing tasks well.

Excellent analytical skills will allow you to analyze the toughest situations, gather new information and formulate a plan that may be outside of the box.

RS would like to invite you to take part in our upcoming Agriculture, Rural Development, Food Security and Livelihood Short Courses at In-depth Research Services training facilities in Nairobi, Kenya as well as Kigali Rwanda.

Join us by registering for these scheduled training workshops. These training workshop will also give you an opportunity to meet and network with other professionals’ and project management officials from NGOs, public and private organizations’ from across the world management.


Knowledge:

  1. Best -fit approaches’ to extension and advisory service

  2. Pluralism in advisory service prove

  3. Participation and ensuring accountability to local clients.

  4. Capacity development.

  5. Ensuring long-term institutional support: Beyond projects to institution.

Job outlook:

The Government envisioning to up the size of the nation’s macro-economy to USD 5 trillion by 2024 treats agriculture sector as integral to this strategy, and the fulcrum of such a transformation. Specifically with regards to the country’s agricultural economy, the Government’s aim of improving the welfare of the farmers predicated upon doubling farmers’ income by 2022 is moving in the right direction, in synch with the principle of harmonizing the interests of the different stakeholders. The particular demands of the consumers for wholesome nutrition and of the ecology shall be continued to be optimally blended, as the nation moves towards achieving higher incomes and sustainability from the agricultural enterprise.

India along with others on the planet has been facing the adverse impacts of climate change, particularly with reference to deviations in rainfall and temperature. Notwithstanding this, the production growth of various agricultural commodities indicates increasing resilience of the country’s farmers and farming. This is evidenced by food grains output of 285 million tons in 2017-18 as against 265 million tons in the year 2014-15. As per the 4th Advance Estimates, the year 2018-19 is expected to close with similar output and the government is targeting an output of 291 million tons for the year 2019-20. During 2018-19, while kharif output saw a rise over the previous year, the rabi season output saw some dip. This was due to low soil moisture content following less than normal south-west monsoons in different parts of the country. Rabi 2019-20 can be expected to see a bountiful output thanks to more than normal rainfall from the south-west monsoon, which has yielded a happy situation of good water reservoir storage and high soil moisture content.

The overall output of agriculture inclusive of food grains, oilseeds, fruits & vegetables, commercial crops, dairy and other animal products as also fish can be expected to be satisfactory for the year 2019-20. Monsoon patterns continue to be an important factor for India’s agriculture. However, the comforting factor is, that the year 2020 will benefit from recharged aquifers and higher soil moisture linked to the healthy rainfall 2019. Thus one can expect a good kharif harvest in 2020.

Since the last couple of years, the growth of agriculture is being perceived with greater reference to farmers’ income and not production per se. In this context, the status of prices that farmer receives and the agri-logistics that conveys all the produce from the farm-gate to the markets is more critical. The recent prices for food grains, pulses, oilseeds and dairy products have been demonstrating some market buoyancy, which is farmer-favoring. The importance of agricultural exports in expanding the scope for marketing efficiency in favor of the farmers cannot be brushed aside. It is with this view that government for the first time came to adopt a comprehensive agriculture export policy in the year 2018. This is being taken forward with various initiatives including promoting large number of commodity clusters. Clusteralisation will facilitate global market integration by putting in place both backward and forward linkages. The year 2020 will certainly see large number of such clusters take off the ground. This buttressed by government’s focus on promoting 10,000 farmer producer organizations (FPOs) by 2022 will come to see visible action on the ground. The states have begun to adopt the Model Contract Farming & Services Act 2018, and Tamil .

Nadu is the first one to have done so. Many states should be coming onboard in 2020, to set a positive context for marketing efficiency and price risk negotiation.

Simultaneously, rising trade sectarianism by major powers to carve out their respective zones of influence, and compromise of WTO (world trade organization) status by United States - the dominant member warrants, that India looks more closely to its domestic market in the year 2020. It will therefore, need to accelerate the pace of market transformation towards a new architecture that aims to transfer higher real prices to the farmers on their produce. The targeted on boarding of 400 more APLMCs/APMCs with eNAM, and establishing inter-operability with ReMS platform of Karnataka will see the strengthening of the ‘One-nation One-market’ environment. The year 2020 will also see creation of the first lot of GrAMs, progress on e-warehouse receipt system and greater flow of institutional credit on the platform of kisan credit cards (KCCs). The Ministries of Agriculture, and Animal Husbandry & Fisheries are targeting to cover all the eligible farmers including those practicing animal husbandry and fisheries with KCCs.

The year 2020 in a way marks the mid-point of the targeted time schedule for doubling farmers’ income (2016 to 2022). Various recommendations of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Doubling Farmers’ Income (DFI) are under implementation. In the year 2019, the NITI Aayog constituted a Committee of Chief Ministers to suggest ways for speedy transformation of India’s agriculture. This Committee’s Report is due in 2020, which can be expected to pave the way for unhindered implementation of various DFI recommendation including reforms. These encompass a new market architecture, contract farming & services, easing of land lease, liberalized control orders under Essential Commodities Act and so on. This will sequel into a transformed, enterprise oriented and market-led agricultural value system.

In addition to growth of agriculture production and farmer’s income, the focus can be expected to shift towards correcting today’s regional and commodity imbalances. In this context, more visible action can be foretold in respect of rained areas and low water duty crops like millets, pulses and oilseeds in the year 2020. Revision of water-shed guidelines along with emphasis on spring-sheds in the Himalayan states will help the communities to adopt climate resilient technologies and negotiate climate change risks. This is being led by the government’s special arm for rained areas of the country, namely National Rained Area Authority (NRAA). In the year 2020, NRAA should also be working more closely with the states to drought proof already identified 151 vulnerable districts in the country. It is well advised to sharpen water budgeting as a core concept that gels well with the nation’s Jal Shakti Mission. This Mission aims to conserve water and use the scarce resource more efficiently.

Several initiatives have been taken by the Government over the last about 6 years which include the soil heath card (SHC), the Pradhan mantri fasal bima yojana (PMFBY), param paragat krishi vikas yojana (PKVY), PM-AASHA, PM-KISAN and so on. One can foresee a widening of these initiatives and even higher acceptance by all stakeholders including farmers in 2020.

In leading up to realization of USD 5 trillion economy, the Government has just shared its National Infrastructure Pipeline. This pipeline amounts to Rs. 102 lakh crores of gross capital formation, that includes various components of agricultural investments, ‘In’ and ‘For’ agricultural economy, as recommended by the DFI Committee. The year 2020 will see the commencement of such investments and lay the foundation for a decadal future growth.


Average income:

The history of Agriculture in India dates back to and even before that in some places of Southern India. India second worldwide in farm outputs. As per 2018, agriculture employed more than 50℅ of the Indian work force and contributed 17–18% to country's GDP.

In 2016, agriculture and allied sectors like , and accounted for 15.4% of the (gross domestic product) with about 31% of the workforce in 2014. India ranks first in the world with highest net cropped area followed by US and China. The economic contribution of agriculture to India's GDP is steadily declining with the country's broad-based economic growth. Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of.India exported $38 billion worth of agricultural products in 2013, making it the seventh largest agricultural exporter worldwide and the sixth largest net exporter. Most of its agriculture exports serve developing and least developed nations. Indian agricultural/horticultural and processed foods are exported to more than 120 countries, primarily to the Japan, S, SR countries, the and the S.


Frequently Asked question

Q.1. How far is it true that the Indian economy is an agrarian economy?

Ans. Occupational pattern and the contribution of agricultural sector towards national income indicate India’s economy as an agrarian one. According to the 2001 census, of the total work force, 64 p.c. people were engaged in the agricultural sector and the rest in the secondary, and tertiary sectors.

During 2007-08, agriculture contributed nearly 19.4 p.c. of our national income. In these senses, Indian economy is an agrarian one.


Q.2. Mention the causes of low agricultural productivity in India.

Ans. Following factors are responsible for the low productivity in Indian agriculture: Absence of adequate irrigation facilities, surplus agricultural labor whose marginal products are zero or negative, inadequate use of high-yielding varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, etc., use of old and hackneyed methods of production, inadequate use of non-farm services like finance, marketing, etc., small and fragmented land holding; reactionary land tenure system; etc.


Q. 3. What measures would you recommend for improving agricultural productivity in India?

Ans. Following measures may be suggested for improving India’s agricultural productivity:

Extension of artificial irrigation facilities throu­ghout the country, strengthening of the flood controlling measures, extensive use of HYV seeds, fertilizer, modern techniques of production, fallow land to be made cultivable; prevention of land erosion, liberal grant of loans to farmers, etc. Above all, structural and institutional changes must have to be made.


Q.4. Name the principal objectives of land reforms in India.

Ans.There are two fundamental objectives of land reform measures in India: Firstly, country’s agrarian structure has to be rearranged in such a way that the relations between land and labor promote the growth of agriculture.


Q.5. Mention the institutional covered by the concept of land reforms. Or what are the basics steps to land reforms in India?

Ans. The concept of land reform refers to changes in institutional factors which envisage distribution of land to the actual tillers of the soil, improve the size of farms, provide security of tenure and rent regulation, etc. Thus, the land reform measures are integral part of institutional reforms.

It breaks the shackles of feudal or semi- feudal agricultural structure and distributes land- asset in favor of the landless cultivating classes.


Q.6. Mention the various measures adopted under the land reforms programs in India.

Ans. To make the land reform policy a successful one, following measures were taken by the Government:

(a) Abolition of intermediaries,

(b) Tenancy reforms:

(i) Security of tenure for tenants,

(ii) Conferment of ownership on tenants, and

(iii) Regulation of rent,

(c) Ceiling on landholdings,

(d) Consolidation of scattered and fragmented land holdings, and

(e) Extension of cooperative farming.


Q.7. What is meant by green revolution?

Ans. The green revolution refers to a sudden large increase in agricultural production. The basic components of the New Agricultural Strategy are high-yielding varieties of seeds or miracle seeds, extensive application of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc., extension of irrigation facilities, improved agricultural machinery, etc.


Q.8. Since when has the green revolution been in operation in India?

Ans. The result of the New Agricultural Strategy of 1966-67 is the green revolution. However, some experts of the Ford Foundation of America recommended for the introduction of the New Agricultural Strategy on an experimental basis in 1960-61.


Q.9. What is khariff crop?

Ans. Agricultural practices in India are classified on the basis of season as khariff crop and rabi crop. Khariff crop refers to that crop which is harvested during the rainy season.


Q.10. What is rabi crop?

Ans. Rabi crop refers to that crop which is harvested during the winter season. Examples of rabi crops are wheat, potato, etc.


Q.11. What is subsistence farming?

Ans. Typically, Indian agriculture is based on the subsistence level. This means that farming is conducted just to meet consumption requirements of the cultivators. In other words, subsistence farming refers to that farming in which production equals consumption. No surplus food grain emerges.


Q.12. What is tenant farming?

Ans. Under tenant farming; the farming society stands as the owner of large tracts of land which is divided into small holdings and is based among the member farms against the payment of a fixed rent. Each farmer can dispose off the produce the way he likes.


Q.13. What is share cropping?

Ans. Under this, crops produced are determined in accordance with a specified norm between landowners and bargadars. The principle of share cropping will differ if the cost of cultivation is fully and/or partly borne by the landowner.


Q.14. What is operation barga?

Ans. Bargadars are often evicted from land by the landowners. To preserve their rights on land and to improve their economic position, the West Bengal Government passed laws in this direction. Under it, the sharecropper must get legal sanction from his jotedar.

This law suggests that (i) the name of the bargadars, (ii) quantum of crops produced, (iii) ‘number’ of the plot of land, etc., are to be given in the form of a receipt to the bargadar by the jotedar. This is known as ‘operation barga.


Q.15. Mention two sources of institutional credit in India.

Ans. The two sources of institutional credit provided to the agriculturists are public sector banks and cooperative banks.


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